MASD Type of moisture
Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) Urine and faeces
Intertriginous dermatitis (ITD) Perspiration/sweat (also urine and faeces)
Periwound moisture associated dermatitis Exudate
Peristomal moisture associated dermatitis Effluent from the stoma

Adapted from (Young, 2017)

Prolonged exposure causes the skin to become increasingly permeable, making it weaker, less elastic and more susceptible to physical damage from friction and shearing forces. (Beeckman et al., 2015; Woo et al., 2017)

MASD can occur in any age, but within the older age group, the skin is more fragile and may be damaged more easily.

There are a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that may cause MASD.

Intrinsic factors Extrinsic factors
Excessive perspiration Chemical/biological irritants
Increased dermal metabolism (elevated local temperature) Mechanical stress on the skin (shear, friction, pressure)
Abnormal skin pH Fungal/candidiasis proliferation
History of atopy (genetically susceptible to contaminants/irritants) Seasonal or environmental factors (humidity)
Deep body folds Incontinence (urine and or faecal)
Dermal atrophy Hygienic practices
Inadequate sebum production

Adapted from (Woo et al., 2017)